Sigma and Husch Blackwell authors collaborated on a series of short white papers to outline the importance of proper due diligence, planning, and continuous monitoring during construction to minimize third party claims.


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This paper covers the planning, design and performance monitoring associated with a porous concrete pavement system installed as an innovative storm water management approach for an approximate 1.6 acre retail development project in Franklin, Wisconsin.

Planning for the project required that the development provide measures to meet City of Franklin, Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD), and Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) storm water management regulations and requirements. Given the nature of the development and and space constraints associated with the project site, utilization of an innovative storm water management approach using a porous concrete pavement system was considered early in the planning and preliminary design phase of the project. Enthusiastic acceptance of the concept by the developer (Zabest Commercial Group), the City of Franklin, the MMSD and the WDNR allowed the project to proceed without delay. The porous concrete pavement system was installed in April 2006 and has been functioning as designed since then.

The pavement system consists of four inches of a proprietary porous concrete pavement (EcocretoTM) placed over a stone storm water detention bed. The permeability of the porous pavement system is approximately 4 inches of rainfall per minute and the stone detention bed beneath the pavement provides for storage of the 100-year, 24-hour rainfall event volume over the entire site.The system was designed and is operated as a zero storm water discharge system. Monitoring of the pavement system since its construction has shown no surface discharge of storm water from the site.

This reduces the potential for downstream sewer surcharging and flooding, reduces downstream pollutant loading and provides for groundwater recharge.

This paper examines the design and technical details associated with the implementation of the pavement system including an examination of regulatory requirements pertaining to storm water management that were applicable to the development project. System performance monitoring is presented and evaluated. Pavement system costs including on-going maintenance costs are also evaluated and compared to costs associated with a more conventional pavement and storm water management system. Advantages accrued to the various stakeholders are also discussed.

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46th Annual Purdue Industrial Waste Conference, May 1991.

  • Kenneth E. Kaszubowski, P.E.

The Brass Division of the Kohler Wisconsin facility manufacturing brass plumbing faucets and fittings, which are finished by a wide variety of processes. These metal finishing processes create several wastewater stream which must be effectively managed in order to maintain compliance with established regulatory limits and minimize operating costs within the Brass Division. These wastewater stream are highly variable in terms of composition, volume and flow rate. Management of these wastewaters presents significant challenges with respect to pollution prevention, optimization of treatment methods, and compliances with effluent discharge limits. The Brass Division employs a conventional metal hydroxide precipitation treatment process train for a majority of the wastewater streams generated in the facility. Some stream are shipped off-site for treatment and disposal. A simplified schematic of the Brass Waste Treatment (BWT) facility is presented in Figure 1.

The Brass Division requested the assistance of Kohler’s Corporate Environmental Engineering and Safety Department and Chemical and Metallurgical Laboratory to assist them in reducing cost associated with managing their wastewater streams while continuing an outstanding record of regulatory compliance.

The goals of this paper are to present a case study of a waste and cost reduction project which:

  • illustrates the decision process to select an appropriate waste and cost reduction technology
  • describes the selected technology and the interaction with the existing metal finishing and waste treatment operations
  • describes the anticipated and actual benefits achieved

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43rd Annual Purdue Industrial Waste Conference, May 1988.

Summary: A discrepancy exists between the information available in the literature regarding oil and grease and the information used to establish limits for this materials. The goal of this chapter is to present information and recommendations that will be useful in the establishment of pretreatment limits for the discharge of oil and grease material to publicly owner treatment works (POTW’s). The recommendations are intended to facilitate the development of regulations that will result in efficient use of POTW treatment capacity while minimizing the cost of pretreatment for industry. The chapter is organized as follows:

  • Oil and Grease in Domestic Wastewater
  • Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Oil and Grease
  • Operational Problems
  • Pretreatment Regulations
  • Regulatory Approaches
  • Pretreatment Technology
  • Summary Recommendations for Oil and Grease Limits

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Published Central States Water Environmental Association, Water Environmental Federation, and American Electroplaters and Surface Finishers Paper, May 1999, October 1999, and January 2000.

  • Kenneth E. Kaszubowski, P.E.
  • Robert F. Peschel, P.E.

Abstract: Three case studies are presented from the metal working and finishing industry where the application of flow through membrane technology was implemented as a cost-saving and waste reduction element within the manufacturing process. These systems were installed as integral elements of the manufacturing process, different than an end-of-process treatment scheme. The project approach in each case study was: establishing a baseline of operating conditions; a preliminary economic analysis of their application; generation of meaningful business economic criteria; preliminary pilot testing to confirm technical feasibility; schematic design and conceptual layout, design and approval; installation; start-up and shake-out full scale operation; testing; and auditing of cost savings and production improvements.

The three case studies were implemented in the metal working and finishing industries where cleaning, degreasing and phosphating is widely used in the manufacture of metal products to precondition metal surfaces. Typically, distinct phases are involved: alkaline- or acid-based aqueous cleaning and degreasing, metal phosphate treatment, and ultra-pure rinse or sealer. Counter-flow or continuous rinses are also employed, depending on the application. The aqueous cleaning solutions are re-circulated and dumped to a pretreatment facility or hauled away when spent. This involves a significant cost burden to the facility in terms of waste requiring treatment. replacement chemistry for bath dumps, associated purchase water costs, sewer discharge costs, permitting costs, and labor costs. In addition, the manufacturing process itself products significant opportunities for deviation from target product quality. This occurs as a result of the buildup of containers in each of the metal preparation stages. Quite often this inherent lack of control on the bath quality will manifest itself in the form of poor paint quality, rejected parts, and production downtime. All of these costs are measurable, and, more importantly, avoidable.

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Concrete International, Design and Construction, 7.7, July 1985.

Summary: Many errors and omissions in reinforcing steel placement go unnoticed during construction of concrete buildings. This article traces deficiencies to budget constraints and compressed time schedules. To alleviate significant reinforcing steel errors and commissions, owners and designer must be educated on the importance of thorough reinforcing steel observations.

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Martinson, Linck, Mueller, Manz, Petrofske. Presented at In-Situ and On-site Bioreclamation Symposium, San Diego, CA, April 1995.

Abstract: Air sparging coupled with soil vapor extraction (AS/SVE) has obvious benefits for groundwater contamination consisting of volatile organic compounds, particularly benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and zylenes (BTEX). Although AS/SVE is easily employed given suitable site conditions, optimized AS/SVE system operation and monitoring (O/M) are often overlooked once treatment is initiated. Site O/M typically is conducted with on-site field staff, or as an alternative, by remotely connecting to the site via modem and programmable logic controller (PLC). Two AS/SVE sites located in Wisconsin have used either traditional on-site O/M or the remote modem/PLC option to evaluate and optimize system operation. System on-time efficiency using remote telemetry was improved compared to traditional O/M and system operations.

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